Comparative Table Lubricating oil base
Our lubricating oils consist of about 70-95% base oils (base oil or base stock) and various types of chemical additives for the remaining part to improve and/or provide new properties.
For some heavy-duty applications, mineral base oils produced from oil refining are used.
Synthetic oils are used for special applications and are obtained from chemical synthesis in specifically designed chemical reactors.
Although more expensive to produce, synthetic oils offer performance advantages that can be summarized in the following three points:
1. better sliding at low temperature;
2. better resistance to high temperatures.
3. better resistance to chemical degradation.
The “Comparative Table of Base Lubricating Oils” below, shows the temperature range of the various base oils:
As we can see, synthetic base oils, at a greater operating temperature range than mineral oils, are increasingly demanded in new applications with more severe working conditions.
The most prevalent synthetic lubricant bases are:
• PAO (Polyalphaolefins): these are the most commonly used and provide a wide range of temperature, good lubrication and compatibility with most materials.
• PIB (Polyisobutenes): also known as polymers, these are used to increase lubricant viscosity and adhesiveness
• Esters: ideal for high temperatures, low friction coefficient and low volatility; they are also used in the production of biodegradable lubricants.
• PAG (Polyalkylene glycol): low friction coefficient, low residues and high capacity to remove heat; compatible only with certain types of plastic materials and gaskets.
• Silicones: low lubricity, wide temperature range and good chemical resistance.
• PFPE (Fluorinated): low friction coefficient, large temperature range, high chemical resistance, high temperature resistance and non-flammable.
Lubricating oils available for the various industrial sectors are classified according to ISO VG legislation in which there are several ISO VG classes identified by a number.
In order for a lubricating oil base to belong to a class, it must obtain the base oil kinematic viscosity measured at 40 °C according to ASTM D-445 in a range of ± 10% of nominal value of the ISO VG class.