Comparative Table Lubricating oil base
The lubricating oils are constituted for about 70-95% base oils (base oil or base stock) and for the rest from chemical additives of various kinds introduced to improve and/or provide new properties.
For some applications with heavy-duty, using mineral base oils that are produced from oil refining.
For special applications they use synthetic oils which are obtained by chemical synthetis within specifically designed chemical reactors.
At the expense of a higher cost, synthetic oils offer the performance advantages summarized in the following three points:
1. More sliding at low temperature.
2. More resistant to high temperatures.
3. More resistant to chemical degradation.
In “Comparative Table Base Lubricating Oils” below, you will find the temperature range of various base oils:
As we see, the synthetic base oils,thereby increasing the operating temperature range than mineral oils, requirement increasingly demanded in new applications with more severe working conditions.
The most prevalent synthetic lubricant bases are:
• PAO (Polyalphaolefins): they are the most widespread and provide a wide range of temperature, good lubrication and compatibility with most materials.
• PIB (Polyisobutenes): are also called polymers and are used to increase the viscosity and adhesiveness of lubricants.
• Esters: ideal for high temperatures, low coefficient of friction and low volatility; they are also used in the production of biodegradable lubricants.
• PAG (Polyalkylene glycol): low friction coefficient, low residues and high capacity to remove heat; compatible only with certain types of plastic materials and gaskets.
• Silicones: low lubricity, wide temperature range and good chemical resistance.
• PFPE (Fluorinated): low friction coefficient, large temperature range, high chemical resistance, high temperature resistant and non-flammable.
Lubricating oils available for the various industrial sectors are classified according to ISO VG legislation in which there are several ISO VG classes identified by a number.
A lubricating oil base, to belong to a class, must obtain the base oil kinematic viscosity measured to 40 °C according to ASTM D-445 in a range of ± 10% of nominal value of the ISO VG class.